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2021年湖北高考英语精选练习及答案(5)

时间:2020-10-09    作者:高考在线
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 阅读理解:

  Absent employees cost you money for sure, but what about sick employees that come to work? Move over absenteeism.It seems “presenteeism” has become a far worse workplace problem in terms of causing loss; that is, loss of employee productivity and loss of employer dollars.By the way, presenteeism could mean the practice of workers working when ill and not operating on their usual level of productivity.The total cost of inefficiency of US employers has been increasing, ranging from about $150 to $250 billion annually, while cost of presenteeism makes up 60 percent of the total cost.

  Dual­earner (双职工) families now account for about 2/3 of all married couples, up from 1/3 in the 1970s.Without a stay­at­home parent taking care of a sick child, more workers will go to work when ill in order to save their limited sick days (付薪病休日) for when their children are sick.

  In today's workplaces, some workers go to work when sick also because they fear the following: appearing less hard­working, receiving disciplinary action (纪律处分), or even losing their jobs.A day or more off can also mean coming back with more work loads or missing work deadlines.

  According to the 2004 CCH Survey, disciplinary action remained the most commonly used absence control program.Employers want their employees to be on the job and use as few sick days as possible, but CCH says employers that rely on disciplinary action are unknowingly encouraging presenteeism.Employers need to check and make sure that absence control programs are not counterproductive (达不到预期目标的).Programs such as disciplinary action may in fact force sick employees to work, and this could encourage presenteeism.

  Besides, set up and communicate policies to help employees understand under what conditions they should stay home, and when it's OK to return to work.Employees need to know where their company stands on coming to work in sick, and how doing so can affect others.

  语篇解读:本文是一篇说明文。Presenteeism(假性出勤)是近年来出现的一个新名词,它有很多意思,其中一个是指员工在生病时还继续上班的行为。有研究表明,假性出勤对企业造成的损失比起旷工还要严重。

  1.What does the first paragraph mainly say about presenteeism?

  A.The true meaning of it.

  B.The huge loss caused by it.

  C.Its difference from absenteeism.

  D.Its connection with low productivity.

  解析:选B 推理判断题。综合分析第一段可知,本段着重介绍presenteeism (假性出勤) 这一现象对企业造成的严重损失。

  2.Why do more working parents prefer to work when ill?

  A.To have time to care for sick kids.

  B.To enjoy more family time later.

  C.To earn more money for the family.

  D.To live up to employers' expectations.

  解析:选A 细节理解题。根据第二段的内容可知,随着双职工家庭的增加,家长无法有一方在家照顾生病的孩子,因此更多的人生病也要上班,为的是把付薪病休日留出来,以备孩子生病时有人照顾。

  3.What is the author's attitude to absence control programs?

  A.Negative.

  B.Positive.

  C.Cautious.

  D.Confused.

  解析:选C 观点态度题。分析倒数第二段可知,目前纪律处分是控制缺勤最常用的办法,但研究表明它也会鼓励presenteeism (假性出勤)的发生,雇主应该确保控制缺勤的计划不会有消极的影响。由此可知,作者对于这些计划持谨慎态度。

  4.Which of the following suggestions will the author give employers?

  A.Offer longer paid sick leave.

  B.Turn away those breaking the rules.

  C.Create a more relaxed atmosphere.

  D.Teach employees the related principles.

  解析:选D 细节理解题。综合分析最后一段可知,作者建议雇主建立并推广公司的相关政策,以帮助员工们理解什么情况下应该待在家里,什么时候可以回来工作。也就是使他们明白公司的相关原则。

  Throughout my educational years, despite the kind teachers I had met, I never felt interest in writing until I met her, Mrs.Kelley.At first, I believed that writing would still be my worst class.Gradually, my fondness increased.She taught the lesson in such a lively way and her word choice impressed me.But that was not what made her my favorite.Unlike other teachers, after instructions, she gave an enormous amount of freedom in what we wrote, allowing us to create our own stories using our imagination.And that mattered most.

  There was one really revolutionary event: the historical fiction unit.We were to invent our own stories using the period we were given.World War Ⅱ was mine.At that point, I was just looking for a good grade.Rather than creating a mundane (平淡的) story, I wanted to make a story that I felt was meaningful.As I progressed, I was pulled further and further into the reality that I had made.Grammar no longer existed, as my hands gained acceleration.When I typed the final word, my hands trembled with excitement.Briefly, I read it over and then submitted the draft.

  In the midst of anxiousness, Mrs.Kelley responded.She pointed out some mistakes and gave some suggestions.Sadly, there were no comments of recognition.I fixed the errors and moved on.But when waiting for the final grade, I erased all the unrealistic thoughts that wandered in my mind.

  In the next class, surprisingly, after handing back my paper, Mrs.Kelley mentioned that my story was very good.I looked at her in confusion.Soon excitement stirred inside me.I found a “+5” attached to the score.She had given an extra point in “Plot”, adding an “Excellent!” No other teacher had done this.On that day, I felt what it means to be a writer.Mrs.Kelley introduced me to the beauty of literature and made writing so enjoyable.

  语篇解读:本文是一篇记叙文。作者以前一直对写作不感兴趣,在Kelley老师的引导下,他逐渐感受到写作的乐趣,继而全身心投入其中,最终获得了老师的肯定。

  5.What made Mrs.Kelley so special according to the author?

  A.Her patience and kindness.

  B.Her confidence in students.

  C.Her creative teaching style.

  D.Her professional knowledge.

  解析:选C 细节理解题。根据第一段中“Unlike other teachers, after instructions, she gave an enormous amount of freedom in what we wrote, allowing us to create our own stories using our imagination.”可知,Kelley老师最大的优点在于她的授课方式很有创意,她给予学生充分的自由,允许他们发挥自己的想象力进行写作。

  6.What does the author mainly want to tell us in the second paragraph?

  A.He was interested in war themes.

  B.He should have polished the fiction.

  C.He was anxious to finish the assignment.

  D.He devoted himself to the writing process.

  解析:选D 推理判断题。根据第二段中“I wanted to make a story that I felt was meaningful.As I progressed, I was pulled further and further into the reality that I had made.Grammar no longer existed, as my hands gained acceleration”可知,本段作者主要介绍他在接到写作任务后,决心要写一篇有意义的作文,于是奋笔疾书,全身心投入写作中。

  7.How did the author feel when Mrs.Kelley responded at first?

  A.Excited.

  B.Worried.

  C.Surprised.

  D.Disappointed.

  解析:选D 细节理解题。根据第三段的“Sadly, there were no comments of recognition.”可知,Kelley老师没有给出认可性的评论,这令作者有些沮丧。

  8.What was the biggest benefit the author got from Mrs.Kelley's class?

  A.Recognizing his talent.

  B.Finding the joy of writing.

  C.Determining his lifetime career.

  D.Acquiring practical writing skills.

  解析:选B 推理判断题。根据全文内容特别是最后一段中“On that day, I felt what it means to be a writer.Mrs.Kelley introduced me to the beauty of literature and made writing so enjoyable.”可知,在Kelley老师的教导下,作者由原来的不感兴趣到逐渐爱上写作这门课,感受到文学的魅力以及写作的快乐,这是他最大的收获。

  阅读七选五

  Living with a diet that doesn't include all the animals and animal byproducts (副产品) is termed as vegetarianism (素食主义).It contains different types of vegetarians.

  Those who don't eat meat of any kind, eggs, milk products, or even don't consume processed foods containing any ingredients from animals are termed as vegans.__1__ Vegetarians who don't eat any type of animal meat or even eggs but consume milk are called lacto vegetarians.Vegetarians who don't consume any kind of animal meat or milk but eat eggs are called ovo vegetarians.

  Vegetarianism is accepted and practiced by many people, but each one has his or her reasons.Some people do it for better health.They think vegetarianism is a healthy diet.__2__ They think it's cruel for human beings to kill animals for their nutrition when vegetarian options are available.__3__ Some religions don't allow their believers to consume non­vegetarian food.

  __4__ For example, it can prevent several diseases like heart diseases and cancer.Eating fresh vegetables, fruit and other vegetarian foods like whole grains can help keep a healthy body weight.A vegetarian diet can help improve the process of digestion and thus help the body get rid of poisonous waste products.__5__ Many scientists have also stated that vegetarianism contributes to reducing the effects of global warming.

  A.There are many vegetarians.

  B.Fruitarians only eat fresh fruit.

  C.A vegetarian diet has many health benefits.

  D.Many people do it because of their love for animals.

  E.It's good to have a vegetarian diet but eat meat at times.

  F.Thus, generally vegetarians live longer than non­vegetarians.

  G.Many people practice vegetarianism owing to their religious beliefs.

  1.选B 根据第一段最后一句和本段的内容可知,本段介绍了四类素食者:vegans, fruitarians, lacto vegetarians, ovo vegetarians。本空介绍了果食主义者。

  2.选D 根据本段第一句的“each one has his or her reasons”可知,该段介绍人们素食的原因;空后一句“They think it's cruel for human beings to kill animals for their nutrition”与D项中“their love for animals”相吻合,故正确答案为D。

  3.选G 下一句对本空进行进一步的阐述,都是围绕religion这一原因,故正确答案为G。

  4.选C 根据本段的内容及设空位置可知,本空为本段的中心句。本段主要讲了素食的益处,故正确答案为C。

  5.选F 上文指出,素食可以预防疾病、维持健康体重、促进消化、排出身体的毒素,因此,素食主义者往往寿命更长,故正确答案为F。

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